Leah Bassel
Paradoxes of Protection: Gender at the Borders

This paper begins with the recognition that women’s access to citizenship is, as ever, conditioned by a ‘gendered immigration net’ (Dauvergne 2009). I argue that this net entrenches a ‘paradox of protection’: migrant women’s visibility is premised on conformity to a shifting status of victim which in turn provides limited opportunities for citizenship as status and interacts in troubling ways with citizenship politics. The argument is based on analysis of recent developments of French immigration and asylum law and jurisprudence and the response to these developments on the ground by social workers, NGOs, advocacy groups and migrant women themselves…
*Abstract Condensed

Erik Bleich
Repressing the Oppressors: Anti-Illiberalism, Immigrant Integration, and Majority-Minority Relations in Europe

In this essay, I seek to contribute a better understanding of the trends, causes, and broader implications of contemporary European immigrant integration policies. I argue that the trend toward progressive policies—such as antidiscrimination, hate speech, and hate crime provisions—has been more extensive than commonly recognized. I offer a framework for understanding how these progressive policies originated, highlighting the significance of two factors: a general reserve of progressive values among liberal democratic citizens; and “crises of illiberalism,” defined as extreme illiberal acts by members of the majority that are perceived as a serious threat to liberal values of tolerance or of preserving social order. Such events open windows of opportunity for political leaders to institute progressive policies that signal their intolerance for illiberalism. My analysis suggests that immigrant integration policymaking patterns thus involve not only the state using civic integration policies to discipline minorities perceived as lacking a commitment to liberalism; they also comprise the state using anti-racist policies to restrict the majority’s freedom to be illiberal.  In sum, contemporary immigrant integration policies are most accurately characterized as a crusade against illiberalism from any quarter in an effort to produce stable majority-minority relations.

Jan Willem Duyvendak
The Politics of Home: Nostalgia and Belonging in Western Europe

This article addresses prominent debates in Western Europe on national identity and nostalgia for times past, migration and integration. At the most fundamental level, these debates deal with the right to belong and the ability to ‘feel at home’. The article examines what has happened to the ‘home feelings’ of the native-born (‘autochthonous’) majority under the influence of increased mobility due to globalization. It analyzes how ‘home’ has been politicized, the risks of this politicization, as well as alternative home-making strategies that aim to transcend the ‘logic of identities’ where one group’s ability to feel at home comes at the expense of other groups.

Thomas Faist
Multiculturalism: From Heterogeneities to Social Inequalities and Back

The core of multicultural policies directed at immigrants, indigenous peoples and national minorities since the 1970s has been to overcome social inequalities based on cultural markers or diversities by shaping civic and political relations. In general, multicultural policies emphasize the rights of minority groups as a means to increase their sense of recognition and belonging and also overall national unity – cultural traditions, language and religion is crucial to personal (and group) identity and therefore a precondition for successful integration in all other spheres. Overall, this can be seen as a process of citizenization. While there is abundant literature on philosophical and theoretical underpinnings of multiculturalism, and a small body of much-needed research on the historical trajectories of multiculturalism, there is a surprising absence of studies which account systematically for the underlying relationship between diversities viz. heterogeneities and social inequalities. The analysis traces various efforts which could be used towards this goal, including “boundary making” and intersectional approaches. The paper calls for and develops a social mechanismic approach to explain how (multiple) heterogeneities develop into various forms of inequalities. Such an approach could also inform multicultural policy-making.

Eléonore Lépinard
Secularism, Immigrant Integration and the Politics of Muslims’ Inclusion

In many Western democracies, issues relating to immigrant integration, i.e. definitions of nationhood, citizenship and cultural assimilation, have been reconfigured with the emergence of a new item: the political and legal regulation of Islam. In this paper I first assess this shift and analyze the change in policy tools and legal norms that the transition from “immigrants” to “Muslims” implies. I argue that two opposite norms are mobilized by governments and collective actors to design the policies to include Muslims in the public sphere and in the workplace: secularism and antidiscrimination law. In a second part, I compare France and Canada, two countries with opposite records on secularism and antidiscrimination law, in order to determine which political and legal context is the most favorable to the mobilization of religious discrimination as the relevant paradigm to integrate Muslims. I argue that the arena in which the issue is debated, the institutional- legal framework, the dominant immigrant integration model and the jurisprudence on religious freedom are the key elements which explain when and why the legal vocabulary of religious discrimination, rather than secularism, might prevail. Finally, I discuss the respective role played by Courts and legislative powers in shaping policies aiming at the inclusion of Muslims in both countries. I argue that, contrary to what scholars of immigration have found, Courts are not always efficient in protecting Muslims’ rights to freedom from discrimination.

Willem Maas
Immigrant Integration in the Dutch Republic: Or, How the Dutch Became Dutch

Most contemporary studies of immigrant integration, perhaps not surprisingly, consider current configurations and take for granted the context of a stable, strong, and relatively centralized state able to craft policies and see them enacted. By contrast, this paper considers immigrant integration in an emerging state, focusing on the early Dutch Republic, a political entity whose legitimate existence was confirmed only later with the Peace of Westphalia, which introduced state sovereignty to Europe. Neither the southern nor the eastern boundaries of the new republic were settled (nor, frankly, was the other boundary, the North Sea, as successive efforts to reclaim land from the sea demonstrated). It also lacked a distinct national consciousness (indeed many claim that, before the French Revolution, the very concept of nationality is meaningless everywhere), since it started as a confederation of seven of the seventeen Netherlandic provinces. Despite its tenuous early existence, the Dutch Republic became a major immigrant destination.

With the reconquest of Antwerp by the Spanish, some 150,000 mainly Protestant migrants from the southern provinces arrived, approximately ten percent of the republic’s population. They were joined by Jews from Portugal and elsewhere (growing to over ten percent of Amsterdam’s population by the eighteenth century) and other religious and economic migrants chiefly from Germany, Scotland, and Scandinavia and later some 50,000 Huguenots from France. The immigrants settled mainly in the cities, and the Dutch Republic overtook Italy as the most urbanized region in Europe, with some estimating that half the population of cities such as Amsterdam and Leiden were immigrants. Providing a historical counterpoint to some other papers in this conference, this paper examines immigrant integration in the early Dutch Republic and argues that this integration simultaneously ushered in the Dutch Golden Age and helped create the (nation-)state.

Lars Nickolson
Between Principles and Pragmatism: The Theory and Practice of Local Accommodation of Religion in the Netherlands

Dutch public policy with regards to the accommodation of religion, and the accommodation of islam in particular, is often described as a form of multiculturalism resulting from a history of ‘pillarization’. Religions and (other) philosophies of life are equally recognized or supported, reflecting a so called ‘inclusive neutrality’, while disadvantaged groups may in some cases be entitled to receive extra support through the application of a ‘compensatory neutrality’. This paper aims to analyze to which degree these and similar principles related to multiculturalism and pillarization are put into practice in the Netherlands, and how they play out on a local and national level. It argues that in practice, especially on the local level, pragmatic considerations often seem to be more decisive than multiculturalist principles. Furthermore, a strong focus on liberal principles like individual autonomy and gender equality can be distinguished, mostly resulting in a critical approach to (the support of) religious groups, and sometimes even leading to interference of the government in religious matters. The paper seeks to explain these tendencies, which regularly lead to conflicts and dilemmas on a local level, by linking them to developments within the society at large such as the corrosion of the welfare state and the changing religious landscape. Finally, it explores the possible consequences of these developments for future policies concerning the accommodation of religion and their underlying (multiculturalist) principles.

Oliver Schmidtke
The Politics of Immigration and Integration in Systems of Multi-level Governance: the case of Germany

Europe faces a paradox in pursuing a modern immigration and integration policy: While being propelled by profound demographic changes to attract younger and highly qualified migrants there is considerable political resistance to implementing more liberal immigration policies. Since the 1980s, populist, anti-immigrant parties have sought to exploit and mobilize growing apprehensions regarding immigrants; similarly center-right parties have supported stricter border controls and policies. However, in spite of the political impasse at the national level, there are various initiatives to attract (skilled) migrants and to promote their integration into the fabric of society. This forms the background against which the central research question of this paper is formulated: What is driving initiatives and innovative approaches in the field of immigration and integration policy? Under what conditions and through what processes do these initiatives succeed in an environment in which competitive party politics and public opinion tend to oppose them? The paper addresses the formation of immigration and integration policies in systems of multi-level governance in Europe. It conceptualizes these policies as critically shaped by the logic of politicizing and deliberating issues of immigration and integration at different levels of governance (urban, regional, national and European) and the involvement of diverse types of policy and civil society actors in these political arenas. These processes are illustrated with respect to the case of Germany and in particular the role that sub-national, regional political contexts play.

P.W.A. (Peter) Scholten
Beyond National Models of Integration? Agenda Dynamics and the Multi-Level Governance of Immigrant Integration in the Netherlands.

Immigrant integration policies are commonly described in terms of ‘national models of integration’, such as the French Republican model or the Dutch Multicultural model. This idea of consistent and coherent national models is challenged by the increasingly multi-level dynamics of policy agendas in this domain. Integration policies have acquired a multi-level character and waves of public and political attention to integration problems are often unpredictable and uncontrollable. Policies at various levels can follow specific paths of development, involving different ways of defining and acting upon (‘framing’) immigrant integration. This can complicate the effective multi-level governance of immigrant integration. This paper contains the first theoretical and empirical explorations for a four year project on agenda dynamics and the multi-level governance of immigrant integration . It focuses on the relation between agenda dynamics on local, national and European levels and the multi-level governance of immigrant integration in the Netherlands. How has immigrant integration emerged on the agendas on these levels, how has immigrant integration been framed on these levels, and to what extent can we speak of divergence or convergence in policy dynamics between these various levels. In the end, this analysis has to provide empirical material on the presence or absence of policy coherence on the national level (such as national models of integration), or rather for similarities in policy dynamics between cities even if in different countries (localization) or even between countries (europeanization).

Sara Silvestri
Beyond the Veil, Beyond the Victim: Understanding Muslim Women in Europe

This paper draws on a comparative qualitative study on Europe’s Muslim women conducted between the autumn of 2007 and the summer of 2010, in Belgium, Italy, France, Spain, and England. My research included interviews and surveys of 132 women, living in a selection of large or medium-sized cities, who identified themselves as ‘Muslim’. The sample was highly variegated in terms of ethnic origins, nationality, socio-economic and educational level, age, and personal status. The purpose of my research was to capture snapshots of these women’s lives, daily experiences and engagement with their faith, seeking to move beyond the lens of usual and rather repetitive, and in my view sterile, debates such as, why certain Muslim women wear the veil, whether they are oppressed, and whether adherence to their religion corresponds to an uncompromising rejection of democracy in favour of sharia law. I also wanted to point to the diverse and at times contrasting experiences of Europe’s Muslim women and to help European and international publics (Muslims and non Muslims alike, male and female) zoom on what Europe’s Muslim women have been saying or have to say, as individuals and as women who are more or less connected – in various degrees and fashions – with the religion or cultural traditions of Islam, and who have been affected by a myriad of ethno-cultural legacies and of personal and family life trajectories and aspirations.

Maarten Peter Vink
The EU’s Domestic Impact: Family Migration and Integration Policy in the Netherlands

(co-authored with Saskia Bonjour, Université Libre de Bruxelles)

The history of family migration policies in the Netherlands is a story of increasing politicization: while in the 1950s and 1960s family migration had so little political priority that it was largely left for civil servants to handle, over the past decade it has become one of the most salient issues on the political agenda. This resulted from the fact that, in the absence of alternative legal migration policies, family reunification has become one of the main sources of immigration. Family migration became increasingly seen in the Netherlands as one of the main causes of the perceived failure of integration policy. Parallel to politicization another important trend is Europeanization, following the introduction of European Union competence to legislate on family migration. While the Netherlands has been an active proponent of a reinforcement of the EU co-operation and exchange in this policy area, it has also been the first Member State to be convicted by the European Court of Justice for conducting policies in breach of the EU Directive on family reunification, adopted in 2003. This paper investigates the impact of European cooperation on the dynamics of domestic policy-making in the field of family migration.

Gökce Yurdakul
Religion, Culture and the Politicization of Honour Related Violence: A Critical Analysis of Media and Policy Debates in Western Europe and North America

Since the foundation of the Republic, Turkish public sphere has perhaps never seen such a fierce debate between pro-seculars and pro-religious political actors. Wearing headscarves (basörtüsü or türban) in public places in Turkey has represented the polarization between the governing elites and the governed religious political actors, highlighting the fact that Turkey is a divided society. Drawing on Jürgen Habermas’ work on religion in the public sphere and its important critiques, I will discuss how the religious AK Party members use liberal discourses in the Turkish media discussions in order to defend their reasons and maintain their political power vis a vis seculars. Specifically, I will analyze their discourses on gender equality, freedom of religious expression, diversity, citizenship rights and civil society, by referring to the specific case of headscarf controversy in higher education institutions. I will show how religious claims are debated with liberal discourses, whereas secularism is claimed to be an impedement of democracy in Turkey.

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